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« Last post by Admin on September 15, 2017, 09:05:22 pm »

[size=18pt]Wiki of Major Science Facts & Disputes[/size]

[b]MAJOR SCIENCES: Cosmology/Astronomy, Physics/Chemistry, Geology, Biology, Health, Sociology, Parapsychology[/b]
(Volunteers, give priority to disputes, shown with asterisks.)


[size=14pt]Part 1
[b]Heirarchic List of Universe Objects[/b]

Part 2
[b]Comparison of Theories of Cosmology/Astronomy, Physics/Chemistry & Geology, later to include the other sciences[/b]

Part 3
[b]Developing a process for Efficient Scientific Discussion & Facts Determination with Public Participation[/b][/size]

(Highlighted terms are clickable links to Wikipedia & other sources
- Disputed claims there can be processed in Part 3)


[b]3.1- [a href=""]Universe[/a][/b]

[b]3.2- [u][a href=""]Cosmic Web:1[/a] & [a href=""]Cosmic Web:2[/a] & [a href=""]Great Voids:1[/a] & [a href=""]Great Voids:2[/a][/u][/b]
(The Cosmic Web is the universal web of strings of galaxy clusters)
[a href=""]List of Web Structures & Voids[/a]

[b]3.3- [u][a href=""]Galaxy Clusters:1[/a] & [a href=""]Galaxy Clusters:2[/a][/u][/b]
List of Galaxy Clusters (to do)

[b]3.4- [u][a href=""]Galaxies:1[/a] & [a href=""]Galaxies:2[/a][/u][/b]
[a href=""]List of Galaxies[/a]
.[a href=""]Galactic Halo[/a]
.[a href=""]Galactic Bulge[/a]
.[a href=""]Galactic Plane[/a]
.[a href=""]Gas Clouds:1[/a] & [a href=""]Gas Clouds:2[/a]
.[a href=""]Interstellar Medium[/a]
.[a href=""]Galactic Filaments[/a]

[b]3.5- [u]Stellar Objects[/u][/b]
.[a href=""]Star Clusters[/a]
.[a href=""]Star Systems[/a]
[a href=""]*Black Holes[/a]
[a href=""]*Worm Holes[/a]
.[a href=""]Stars[/a]
.[a href=""]Ringstars (Exotics) & Neutron Stars (New Theory)[/a]
.[a href=""]Planets & Moons[/a]
Comets, Asteroids, Meteors
List of Stars (to do)
List of Ringstars (to do)
List of Planets (to do)
List of Moons (to do)
List of Comets (to do)
List of Asteroids (to do)
List of Meteor Streams (to do)
List of Element Abundances (to do)
List of Mineral Abundances (to do)


[b]3.6- [u]Matter, Space & Time[/u][/b]

.[a href=""]Dust[/a]
.[a href=""]Ions[/a]
.[a href=""]Subatomic Particles[/a]
.[a href=""]Electric Charge[/a]
.[a href=""]Magnetism[/a]
.[a href=""]Radiation[/a]
*Dark Matter
*Dark Energy

[size=14pt][b]Earth Local Science[/b][/size]


[b]3.7- [u]Earth[/u][/b]

.[a href=""]Lithosphere[/a]
.[a href=""]Continental Crust[/a]
.[a href=""]Seafloor Crust[/a]
.[a href=""]Basins[/a]
.[a href=""]Plains[/a]
.[a href=""]Orogeny[/a]
.[a href=""]Oceans[/a]
.[a href=""]Atmosphere[/a]
.[a href=""]Moho[/a]
.[a href=""]Asthenosphere[/a]
.[a href=""]Mantle[/a]
.[a href=""]Outer Core[/a]
.[a href=""]Inner Core[/a]
.History of Earth (to do)
(to do)
[b]3.8- Life - Biology[/b]
.Anatomy, Physiology
[b]3.9- Society - Sociology[/b]
.Physical Health
.Mental Health
« Last post by Admin on September 02, 2017, 10:05:35 pm »
What's Best Theory of Geology? (& a Poll)
Saturday, September 2, 2017 3:37 PM
From:    "lloyd kinder"


Which of these geological theories do you think are most correct? And what may be wrong with any of the others?

ET, Expansion Tectonics, which says: Earth is expanding and its radius has doubled in the past 200 million years.1

PT, Plate Tectonics, which says: Mantle convection forms plate extensions at ocean ridges and subducts plate edges at subduction zones.2

ST, Surge Tectonics, which says: Earth has cooled and shrunk greatly and densification has caused continental lands to sink and magma surge channels have caused orogenesis etc.3

EU, Electric Universe, which says: Galactic electric currents formed the Earth and interplanetary discharges formed its features.4

ESU, Electrostatic Universe, which says: Stars and planets form by implosions of galactic electrostatic filaments, which produce current-free electric double layers within the bodies.5

SD, Shock Dynamics, which says: A large asteroid impact broke up the supercontinent, causing rapid continental drift, orogenesis, volcanism, glaciation, etc.6

3. +
4. +
6. +

I say ESU and SD are most correct.

Saturday, September 2, 2017 5:30 PM

lloyd, I do not normally have get involved in physics topics at this level but did find this link interesting.  I suspect most people intrested in this area of physics have already viewed it.
Cornelis Verhey
(from mobile)

Saturday, September 2, 2017 9:57 PM
Kola Borehole.
Hi Cornelis, thank you for the Kola borehole commentary link. It's interesting that seismometer readings at great depth correlate with higher metamorphic(?) temperatures, instead of a change in rock type from granite to basalt. So is the finding that rock density decreases and permeability increases with much water content at greatest depths. And so is the finding of microfossils in precambrian rock. However, Shock Dynamics finds that sedimentary rock strata are mere thousands of years old, deposited all in a short time, and the precambrian may not be much older, whereas the article said it's 2 billion years old. It has been found that radiometric dating is in error and that ionization greatly increases the rate of radioactive decay by up to billions of times or more. So, if ionization occurred during radioactive element formation, such elements could be very young.

Expansion Tectonics.
I asked James Maxlow: Do the shapes and contents (rock & fossil types) of opposite shores of all oceans (especially the Pacific) match very precisely? I told him: If you have the data to show that they do match all around (at least around the Pacific Ocean), that should just about clinch your arguments. His manuscript suggests that the data does show a match all around the Pacific, so, if he can provide the data, I think his theory will be nearly proven. However, it seems likely that the time and rate of expansion will need to be revised, because the sedimentary strata, which mark the time of the expansion, appear to have been deposited very recently. Also, it will likely need to be determined if the expansion of the Earth occurred due to increase in its mass, or change in its shape. - Good Day. Lloyd

« Last post by Admin on August 31, 2017, 05:21:43 pm »
[b]Comparison & Evaluation of Significant Tectonic Theories[/b]
1st. List significant tectonic theories;
2nd. Make a brief summary of the essential elements of each of these theories;
3rd. Make a table that compares and rates these elements of the theories.

[b]1. Significant tectonic theories[/b] (Name of Theory; Main Proponents; Links)
All of the following tectonic theories are based on scientific evidence. Bringing together a larger collection of facts from each theory should improve all of the theories via an interdisciplinary synthesis.

[b]ET: Expansion Tectonics[/b] __ James Maxlow __ [url=][/url]

[b]PT: Plate Tectonics __ Wikipedia __ [url=][/url][/b]

[b]ST: Surge Tectonics[/b] __ Dong Choi __ [url=][/url] __

[b]EU: Electrodynamic Universe[/b] __ (Ralph Juergens, deceased), Wal Thornhill, Don Scott __ [url=][/url] __ [url=][/url]

[b]ESU: Electrostatic Universe[/b] __ Charles Chandler __ [url=][/url]

[b]SD: Shock Dynamics[/b] __ Mike Fischer __ [url=][/url] , (LK1-4) [url=][/url]


[b]2. Preliminary summary of "claims" for each theory (in 3 stages, considering 5 different Earth features at each stage)[/b]
_Stage 1
F: (Formation) Origin & Dating of Earth & Solar System
C: Origin, Arrangement & Composition of Continental & Oceanic Crust
S: Origin & Dating of Sedimentary Rock Strata & Fossils
O: Cause of Orogenesis
GL: Cause of Glaciation

_F: PT Nebular Hypothesis. Then Earth (and other celestial bodies with magnetic fields) expanded significantly over millions of years.
_C: Earth oceans are where most expansion has occurred at Earth's surface. Earth's mass increase comes from the solar wind, which causes expansion at the core-mantle boundary inside the Earth.
_S: (See JM Manu.)
_O: Mountain ranges occur near continental edges due to reduction in the Earth's radius of curvature that occurs with expansion at the surface.
_GL: (See JM Manu.)

_F: Stars & planets form by gravitational accretion of cosmic dust as per the Nebular Hypothesis
_C: Islands formed and mantle convection caused them to slowly form a supercontinent. Mantle convection caused the supercontinent to slowly split apart into continents.
_S: Sedimentary rock strata were deposited in shallow seas on the continents over millions of years.
_O: Mountain ranges formed slowly from continental collisions and magma plumes etc.
_GL: Glaciation was caused by cooling.

_F: PT Nebular Hypothesis.
_C: Earth shrank significantly over millions of years, due to cooling.
_The lithosphere contains a worldwide network of deformable magma surge channels in which partial magma melt is in motion, due to Earth contraction and rotation.
_The Earth contains several concentric shells, which are explicable only if the Earth differentiated efficiently and at a much higher temperature than today.
_The antipodal positions of the continents and ocean basins (unlikely a matter of chance) mean that Earth passed through a molten phase. Heated spheres cool by rupture along great circles and remnants of two such great circles are active today: the Circum-Pacific and Tethys-Mediterranean fold systems.
_Flood basalt covering most of the seafloor and parts of continents originated from surge channel ruptures.
_Oceanization is the tendency of continental land to sink and become seafloor.
_Earth and planetary (particularly solar) interaction affects global tectonics
_O: Mountain ranges are formed by vertical uplift from below.
_There is Earth's core, mantle and crust interaction, in which thermal energy from the core is the fundamental energy source of global tectonic activities including earthquakes, volcanoes, rise and sink of the Earth surface, and global climate as well

_F: Stars and planets form from galactic electric currents, which continue to power stars after formation.
_O: Mountain ranges were formed from electric discharges from the Sun or a large planet that heated a large discharge channel, which expanded, uplifting mountains.

_F: Stars and planets form by implosions of galactic electrostatic filaments, which produce current-free electric double layers within the bodies, which produce radiation, earthquakes, volcanism etc.
_C: Stars decay, eventually becoming gas giant planets, which lose atmosphere and become rocky planets.
_O: Mountain ranges were formed by rapid continental drift due to a large asteroid impact.

_C: Then a giant meteorite impact north of what is now Madagascar divided the protocontinent into the continents and islands via Shock Dynamics.
_S: During this Flood orbiting asteroid-caused tsunamis deposited sediment from the continental shelf onto the protocontinent.
- As atmospheric pressure fell, much calcium carbonate precipitated from the sea water, forming thick sedimentary rock with fossils.
_O: The movement of plates raised nearly all of the mountain chains via horizontal compression, and initiated global volcanism.
_GL: Movement of continents toward the poles along with atmospheric moisture and volcanic and impact dust led to glaciation.


ET:___(For Stage 2) G: Megafauna were able to move on a smaller Earth, because it had less mass and weaker gravity.
ST:___(For Stage 2) M: The Mohorovicic discontinuity originated during the initial cooling of the Earth, which was the level of neutral buoyancy where surge channels form.
SD:___(For Stage 2) _A: A great Flood occurred about 11,500 years ago.
_G: Before the Flood there was a protocontinent and Earth's atmosphere was dense, so many creatures grew to gigantic sizes.
_G: "Cenozoic" large mammals & others were buried by flooding and were fossilized.
_I: A long swarm of meteorites of all sizes struck the Moon and the Earth, causing heavy rain and loss of much of the atmosphere.
_I: After the Flood the Chicxulub meteorite hit Mexico, spreading iridium and shocked quartz over the protocontinent.
EU:___(For Stage 2) _A: Global cataclysms occurred about 4,500 years ago as described in ancient myths.
- Eventually, due to the Sun's gravity or electrical charge effects, the three rocky planets escaped from Saturn, leading to cataclysmic near collisions.
- A great flood occurred during the cataclysms.
_I: The surface features on the rocky planets and moons were caused by electric discharges or megalightning.
ESU:___(For Stage 2) _I: The surface features on the rocky planets and moons were caused by asteroid and meteor impacts, largely via thermonuclear explosions.


[b]3. Table for Theories Comparison & Evaluation[/b]
_Stage 1
F: (Formation) Origin & Dating of Earth & Solar System
C: Origin, Arrangement & Composition of Continental & Oceanic Crust
S: Origin & Dating of Sedimentary Rock Strata & Fossils
O: Cause of Orogenesis
GL: Cause of Glaciation
_Stage 2
I: Impact Events
A: Ancient Reports of Global Catastrophe
M: Cause of Mohorovicic Discontinuity
G: Cause of Ancient Gigantism
R: Cause of Radioactivity
_Stage 3
V: Causes of Volcanism
E: Causes of Earthquakes
IM: Origin of Igneous & Metamorphic Rock
GM: Cause of Geomagnetism
OA: Origin of Oceans & Atmosphere

(Previous List)
Earth Composition, Origin, Dating, Continental Crust, Oceanic Crust, Igneous & Metamorphic Rock, Volcanism, Earthquakes, Sedimentary Rock Strata, Limestone, Fossils, Gigantism, Atmosphere, Geomagnetism, Radioactivity, Impact Features, Ancient Reports
(I'm sidelining 2 of the theories, because supporters are harder to find for them)
[b]VC: Velikovskian Catastrophism[/b] __ (Immanuel Velikovsky, deceased), John Ackerman, Gary Gilligan __ [url=][/url] , [url=][/url] , [url=][/url]
[b]CR: Creationism[/b] __ Michael Oard, John Baumgardner __ [url=][/url] , [url=][/url]
(Aside from creation, which may not be testable, some versions of creationism are predominantly scientifically well founded.)
_F: Earth was formerly a moon of Saturn, but Saturn as a small star had a flareup which led to Earth escaping from Saturn.
_F: The solar system was created.
_C: The Earth was created.
_S: Tsunamis deposited sediment from the continental shelf onto the protocontinent, forming thick sedimentary rock with fossils.
_O: Rapid continental drift due to mantle convection formed mountain ranges.
_GL: Asteroid impacts led to glaciation.
VC:___(For Stage 2) _A: Global cataclysms occurred about 3 millennia ago as described in ancient myths.
_A great flood occurred during the cataclysms.
_I: When Earth escaped from Saturn it had near collisions with Venus and Mars. The surface features on the rocky planets and moons were caused by asteroid and meteor impacts and electric discharges or megalightning.
CR:___(For Stage 2) _A: An orbiting asteroid caused megatsunamis and a great Flood about 5,000 years ago.
_I: Asteroid impacts caused the plate tectonic convection in the mantle, which caused rapid continental drift.
« Last post by Admin on August 30, 2017, 04:38:04 pm »
August 25?, 2017
BN: If it's OK with you, let me jump in and try to create this organization. I'll do it in Word as a separate document. If you agree with it, you can post the needed documents to implement the organization.

Yes, invite people from the email string. You can run etherpad sessions with anyone. I think you can start your first debate right in the Forum using your role as facilitator. For example, In the Tasks & Request for Volunteers, number 1.4 is Organize focused discussions related to the "open" questions with a goal of finding answers. Add a new item in the Open Assignments list: 4.2 Hold debates on specific open questions. Then assign yourself as the Team Leader. I'm attaching a suggestion for how to run the debate. We can set up a time to discuss via etherpad.

[b]CNPS Cooperative Debates[/b]
Bruce Nappi, August 2017

1. To improve the understanding of a disputed viewpoint
2. To teach participants a method and value for Cooperative Debate

1. Select a lead facilitator
2. Set out the disputed viewpoint as a pro statement for one side. This establishes a pro-con issue.
3. Explain the debate structure.
a. There will be 4 teams
b. Each of the teams can have any number of members
c. Teams 1 and 2 will be the conventional pro-con teams
d. Team 3 is the “off axis” team.
e. Team 4 will be part of the “facilitator” team, led by the lead facilitator.
4. Preparation:
a. Each of the teams is instructed to prepare for the debate with a document submission deadline.
b. Teams 1 and 2 research the literature and develop i. support for their particular position and ii support against the other teams position.
c. Team 3 researches the literature and searches for support for positions that are not consistent with either the pro or con position.
d. Team 4 researches the literature for critiques already conducted of both the pro and con positions
5. Documentation:
a. Each of the teams submits their documentation.
b. Team 4 reviews the documentation and makes a judgment as to the viability of moving the topic forward if the gathered knowledge is debated by the members assembled. This is a balance of the content of the knowledge and the skill level of the team members.
c. If the judgment is positive, the facilitator posts the documentation in an easily accessible format.
6. Launch:
a. The facilitator determines a time period available for the participants based on the complexity of the topic. This can be a single day event, or extend to months.
b. The facilitator publicizes the debate stating: topic, length of debate; start date, coordinating url.
7. A Forum Debate:
a. At a prescribed start time, the facilitator opens the debate with a new set of forum threads. The debate rules, debate topic, team participants, and document citations are presented.
b. Team 4 will “moderate” the debate for applicability and academic respect.
c. Team 1 presents it supportive position.
d. Team 2 presents it supportive position.
e. Team 1 presents it defensive position – i.e. arguments why the other team is wrong.
f. Team 1 presents it defensive position – i.e. arguments why the other team is wrong.
g. Team 3 challenges all 4 team 1 & 2 positions with alternatives
h. The debate is open to all comers to add pros and cons for all previously presented positions or challenges to any presented position. This step remains open until all positions are established. Resolution of lack of agreement may not occur.
i. Teams 1-4 now suggest any theoretical research that can improve ANY position.
j. The facilitator decides if any of the research can be done in a practical timescale – math analysis for example. If so, the research is entertained and completed.
k. The debate is open to all comers to pose as described in step h.
l. Team 4 summarizes the debate. Any person who achieves Goal 1 of the effort shall be so recognized.
8. Follow-on Publications:
a. If any occurrences of Goal 1 have been achieved, the facilitator organizes any willing members to produce a publishable paper and relevant Wikis related to the discoveries.


[b]Educational Games[/b]
_1. Discussions follow template to complete Wiki papers best theories or best essential elements of theories. 2. Q&A could then be reorganized/recategorized, if needed for further Discussion.
_1. Dungeons and Dragons moving from one room to another requiring players to answer a question correctly to go to the next room or follow the facilitator template rules at: [url]
_try the game with me; invite members to try it;
_contact teachers to ask them to invite students to try such games.
_Augmented Reality Development Lab
Manipulate handheld images in 3D.

[b]LK: Games for Science & Education[/b]
I'm wondering if a game setup like Dungeons & Dragons might provide enough fun to help the Forums. Here's an example (using my facilitator template), which could be played on a Forum, using an etherpad for drafts before posting to the Forum.

To get to the next room, R, (something like the following rules would be posted at the door to each room) the players must:
R1. agree on a science topic (plus best credited image);
R2. name the 7 (or so) best theories that attempt to explain that topic & rate them;
R3. name 5 (or so) major topic features that each theory should explain;
R4. write 5 (or so) important questions for the first theory;
R5. " for the second;
R6. " for the third;
R7. " for the fourth;
R8. " for the fifth;
R9. " for the sixth;
R10. for the last;
R11. determine the 3 most crucial questions for each theory;
R12. find answers to the 3 questions for the first theory;
R13. " for the second;
R14. " for the third;
R15. " for the fourth;
R16. " for the fifth;
R17. " for the sixth;
R18. " for the last;
R19. rate the answers, maybe including the reasoning;
R20. be rewarded with recognition for finding answers in rooms 12-18 and for doing the best rating in room 2 & 19, with results published in the Wiki.

If room 19 finds no theory to be a clear winner, the elements of theories that get the highest ratings could still get Wiki pages, as I think you suggested. For anyone who wants to continue the game longer, there could be an additional room/s that require/s categorizing the questions (as you request) and organizing the room/s to attract future explorers.

I mentioned an image for room 1, because I think the game would be more enjoyable if there were relevant images in each room, though I didn't mention images for other rooms yet. The rules could include posting an appropriate image in each room. The spaces between dotted lines below simulate rooms. I found that it's pretty easy to post images on the Forums and is an easy place to upload images to get links to post to the Forums.










[b]DIY Focus Groups[/b]
Tips for Do-it-yourself Focus Groups
2. Be careful not to get customers talking about topics that you either can’t or don’t plan to change.
3. If you aren’t paying your customers to attend, perhaps you can offer another incentive, such as a gourmet meal, or the chance to expand their professional network.
4. call it a group discussion, a customer feedback meeting, or a voice-of-our-customers event, not a focus group. four to six is a good number
5. discussion should feel like a kitchen table conversation
6. Listen for emotions as well as facts
7. Don’t take the opportunity to sell something
8. Use extreme caution when interpreting what you hear

« Last post by Admin on August 30, 2017, 03:44:11 pm »
NPA Contacts
(from )
Arteha, Sergey N. (Dr.) ==
Beaty, William J. ==
Chukanov, Kiril B. (Prof.) ==
Hayden, Howard C. (Dr.) ==
Intini, Francesca (Dr.) ==
Johnson, Claes (Prof.) ==
Jonson, Jan Olof ==
Nichols, Bill D. ==
Nott, Ronald ==
Osmaston, Miles F. ==
Taylor, Helen Look-Yat ==
Tombe, Frederick David ==
Treat, Michael R. (Dr.) ==

Brady, Terry O. ==
DeWitte, Roland ==
Gold, Thomas (Prof.) ==
Guy, Bernard (Prof.) ==
Haberle, Julie Ann ==
Khaidarov, Karim Amen (Dr.) ==
Kolasa, Pawel ==
McCarthy, Dennis J. ==
Nahhas, Joe Alexander (Prof.) ==
Osmaston, Miles F. ==
Scarborough, Alexander A. ==
Setterfield, Barry John ==
Taylor, Helen Look-Yat ==
Wachspress, How ==

Big Bang: Akinbo Ojo, Bruce Nappi, Lloyd Kinder, Phil Bouchard
DarkMatter: Akinbo Ojo, Bruce Nappi, Lloyd Kinder, Phil Bouchard
Relativity: Akinbo Ojo, Phil Bouchard, Viraj Fernando
Gravity: Akinbo Ojo, Bruce Nappi, David Tombe, John Fiala, Lloyd Kinder
Radiometric: John Fiala, Lloyd Kinder,,,

Intini, Francesca (Dr.)
Jonson, Jan Olof
Nichols, Bill D.
Nott, Ronald
Tombe, Frederick David
Treat, Michael R. (Dr.)

Email String;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
« Last post by Admin on August 30, 2017, 03:41:37 pm »
TB Members possibly interested in helping Improve Science:
bdw000, BirdyNumNums, Brigit Bara, Chan Rasjid, chut, Cubit32, D_Archer, dd6, Elder,  ElecGeekMom, fractal-geoff, GaryN, GenesisAria, jacmac, JCG, JeffreyW, JHL, jimmcginn, Keith Ness, kodybatill, Kuldebar, Lucien_Beckmann, lw1990, Melusine, Metryq,  mikie1999cr, philalethes, Phorce, phyllotaxis, Pi sees, Plasmatic, pln2bz, popster1, querious, RayTomes, Roshi, Rushthezeppelin, saul, seasmith, skittl3s17, Solar, StefanR, trevbus, Webbman, Zelectric, ZenMonkeyNZ, Zyxzevn

Online scientific discourse is broken and it can be fixed
Scientific bias prevents scientific progress
Chris Reeve's et al Ideas to Improve Science Discourse
« Last Edit: May 08, 2017, 10:54:27 am by Admin »


CIA World Factbook


PDR Health

« Last post by Admin on August 30, 2017, 03:25:36 pm »
[b]LK's Wiki Planning Outline[/b]
The purpose of this thread is to discuss and help plan the CNPS Wiki for Science Improvement.

[b]Plans for Organizing a Wiki[/b]
1. Plans to Improve the Scientific Method
2. List Major Fields of Science
3. List Major Science Facts & Flaws for Main CNPS Wiki Topics

[b]1. Plans to Improve the Scientific Method[/b]
The Scientific Method involves:
1.1. making accurate observations of reality;
--- [I just happened to notice that reality even includes things like imagination too.]
1.2. making a hypothesis to attempt to explain observations;
1.3. testing the hypothesis by experiment, using accurate and relevant measurements, using logic and, if needed, math as well, and taking relevant, accurate notes of all procedures involved, to determine if the hypothesis is contradicted;
1.4. revising the hypothesis and the experiment, if contradicted [during testing];
1.5. publishing the experiment;
1.6. getting 2 or more unaffiliated parties to replicate a successful experiment;
1.7. publishing the hypothesis as a probable fact and a scientific discovery, if all experiments are successful; and
1.8. using the discovery to increase control over nature for the purpose of improving the conditions of society.
Common errors that undermine the Scientific Method are:
1.1. making inaccurate observations of reality;
1.2. making an untestable hypothesis;
1.3. misusing logic or math in the experiment;
1.4. recording false or inaccurate data, or taking inaccurate notes;
1.5. suppressing potentially useful experiments;
1.6. failing to replicate an experiment by unaffiliated parties;
1.7. publishing false or misleading statements about experiments or experimenters; and
1.8. misusing scientific findings for the detriment of society.
Human imperfection results in many experiments being done improperly, or reported on inaccurately, or suppressed unfairly. Sociology needs to study these problems and devise means to prevent abuse of science.

[b]2. List Major Fields of Science[/b]
Cosmology, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Catastrophism, Paleontology, Archeology, Mythology, Biology, Neurology, Psychology, Sociology, Parapsychology

[b]3. List Major Science Facts & Flaws
(This is a Suggested Wiki Outline)[/b]
(Give priority to flaws, shown with asterisks.)
3.1- Universe
-Origin: *BigBang +*Creation +Eternal;
-Motion: *Expansion +*SteadyState +*Relativity +Spinning +Indeterminate
-Formation of 3.1-3.7:
*Gravitational Electric +*Magnetic +Radiation
3.2- Uniweb (universal web of strings of galaxy clusters) +GreatVoids
3.3- Galaxy Clusters
3.4- Galaxies
3.5- Galactic Bulge: InterstellarMedium +GalacticHalo
3.6- Star Clusters: StarSystems +GasClouds
3.7- *Black Holes +*Worm Holes +Stars +Ringstars +*NeutronStars
..... +Planets +Moons +Asteroids +Comets +Meteors
3.8- Dust: Matter +Ions +ElectricDischarge +Magnetism +Radiation +*DarkMatter +*DarkEnergy
3.9- Space +Time +Motion +Aether
[b]3.10 Earth Local Science:[/b]
Geology: *Uniformitarianism +Catastrophism +Paleontology +Archeology +*Mythology
3.11- Life - Biology
3.12- Consciousness - Neurology
3.13- Intelligence - Psychology & Philosophy
3.14- Society - Sociology
3.15- ESP - Parapsychology


[b]3. List Major Science Facts & Weak Theories[/b]
(This is a Suggested Wiki Outline)
(Give priority to explaining why Weak Theories are weak)

3.1- Universe:

-Universe Origin: [b](Weak Theory)[/b] Big Bang -Motion: [b](Weak Theory)[/b] Expansion:
__[X]Disproof: High redshift quasars in front of or connected to low redshift galaxies prove that redshift does not equate to distance and the quasars are not receding faster than the galaxies. If the universe is expanding, it is not expanding rapidly. There is no solid evidence of a Big Bang.
Quasar in Front of Galaxy:
Quasars Nearby:
Fingers of God:
__*Best Alternative Theory: High redshift quasars and galaxies likely have bipolar jets and it is ions moving inward in those jets that cause the high redshift, rather than a recessional velocity of the quasars and galaxies.

-Universe Origin: [b](Weak Theory)[/b] Creation:
__[X]: There is no evidence that anything can be created from nothing.

-Universe Origin: (Best Alternative Theory) Eternal:
__*: The universe is eternal, has always existed, but not in the same form.

-Universe Motion: [b](Weak Theory)[/b] Steady State:
Comparing distant galaxies to closer galaxies, it is apparent that the universe has been changing, so it is not in a steady state.

-Universe Motion: [b](Weak Theory)[/b] Relativity:
Time and space do not expand or contract, but their appearance does.

-Universe Motion: (Best Alternative Theory) Spinning:
Gravity may be a centrifugal force in a spinning universe.

-Universe Motion: (Best Alternative Theory) Indeterminate:
There is not enough data to determine if the universe is slowly expanding or contracting, but it is not doing either rapidly.

-Universe Formation: 3.1-3.7: [b](Weak Theory)[/b] Gravitational:
Gravity is not the primary force of structure formation in the universe.

-Universe Formation: (Best Alternative Theory) Electric:
The electric force is the primary force of structure formation.
Astrophysics & Geophysics:

-Universe Formation: (Best Alternative Theory) Radiation:
The electric force is caused by photonic radiation.

3.2- Cosmic Web:
(The cosmic web is the universal web of strings of galaxy clusters)
Great Voids:
List & Map of Voids:

3.3- Galaxy Clusters:
List & Map of Galaxy Clusters:

3.4- Galaxies:
List & Map of Galaxies:

3.5- Galactic Bulge:

Interstellar Medium:

Galactic Halo:

3.6- Star Clusters:

Star Systems:

Gas Clouds:

3.7- [b](Weak Theory)[/b] Black Holes:

[b](Weak Theory)[/b] Worm Holes:

[b](Weak Theory)[/b] Stars:
List & Map of Stars:
List of Element Abundances:

(New Theory) Ringstars (Exotics) & [b](Weak Theory)[/b] Neutron Stars:
List & Map of Ringstars:

Planets, Moons:
List & Map of Planets:
List & Map of Moons:
List of Element Abundances:
List of Mineral Abundances:

Comets, Asteroids, Meteors
List & Map of Comets:
List & Map of Asteroids:
List & Map of Meteor Streams:
List of Element Abundances:
List of Mineral Abundances:

3.8- Dust:
List & Map of GasClouds
List of Element Abundances:

(New Theory) Matter Formation:
List of Elements & Isotopes:




Electric Discharge:



[b](Weak Theory)[/b] Dark Matter:

[b](Weak Theory)[/b] Dark Energy:

3.9- Space:




[b]3.10 Earth[/b]
[b](Weak Theory)[/b] Uniformitarianism:




[b](Weak Theory)[/b] Fantasy Mythology:

3.11- Life - Biology:

3.12- Consciousness - Neurology:

3.13- Intelligence - Psychology:

3.14- Society - Sociology:

3.15- ESP - Parapsychology:
CNPS Plans / CNPS Plans
« Last post by Admin on August 30, 2017, 03:21:52 pm »
[b]BN-LK Detailed Discussion[/b]:

[b]BN-LK Discussion Highlights[/b]
__« April 22, 2017, 01:20:31 pm »
Major Unexplained Science Facts & Alternative Models
LK Ideas for Organizing a Wiki
1. Plans to Improve the Scientific Method
2. List Major Fields of Science
3. List Major Science Facts & Flaws for Main CNPS Wiki Topics
(See Sample Wiki thread.)
Paraphrasing Bruce's Forum/Wiki Ideas
a. Tell readers the goal is to produce one or more papers and Wikis.
- Ask readers to submit other flaws &/or alternative theories
b. To structure the topic put it into the forum as 3 co-located threads.
- Create an outline of the local discussion & put it in your “coordination” post.
- Use Mark’s MIT MAP concepts: Questions ( ? ),  Ideas ( lightbulb),  pros and cons (thumbs up and down ) etc.
Aether Lattice Holes Theory
__« April 23, 2017, 11:37:33 am »
Invite: TB Members possibly interested in helping Improve Science:
bdw000, BirdyNumNums, Brigit Bara, Chan Rasjid, chut, Cubit32, D_Archer, dd6, Elder, fractal-geoff, GaryN, GenesisAria, Grey Cloud, jacmac, JCG, JeffreyW, JHL, jimmcginn, Keith Ness, Kuldebar, Melusine, philalethes, Phorce, phyllotaxis, Pi sees, Plasmatic, pln2bz, popster1, RayTomes, Roshi, Rushthezeppelin, saul, seasmith, Solar, Sparky, StefanR, trevbus, Webbman, Zelectric, ZenMonkeyNZ, Zyxzevn
__« April 23, 2017, 11:50:36 am »
__« May 07, 2017, 12:08:53 pm »
<BN: Phone
Catastrophism Topic
Expansion Tectonics
So, a way to find people for your ideas is to post a request on that forum
A second way is to compose an article for the monthly newsletter
getting the newsletter, send a note directly to David de Hilster
Third, there is a blog on the main website
Re sedimentary rock strata, first do some literature analysis on the history of this topic
LK's List of Topics
I put a new forum in there for you: The Scientific Method.
The list of facts and flaws is one of the issues I wanted to talk to you about directly.
__May 8, 9AM
do a test right here on FUNDAY
__« May 11, 2017, 05:14:55 pm »
Message to Dave Talbott re Wiki
I started a thread called, Need Data to Help Create Alternative Science Wiki
I have gotten a Catastrophism board and E.U. boards etc at the CNPS forum.
__Postby Lloyd » Thu May 11, 2017 4:06 pm
Initial preferred topics for discussion are:
Catastrophism: Ancient Global Cataclysm
Mythology: Ancient Myths
Earth Sciences: Global Tectonics
Astronomy: Solar Science
__« May 21, 2017, 01:56:44 pm »
>BN: the CNPS Wiki a collection of alternative science papers
would help to establish a system for evaluating them
Making the list of essential elements of each theory or claim
then a process for evaluating each element
CNPS could publicize the best theories
__Sunday, May 21, 2017 2:45 PM
<Bruce: find me ANY MM reports
system for evaluating is my next TOP priority
publishing a summary of what elements of ALL the papers were good breakthroughs
reward great Peer Reviewers
Peer Review Guidelines [from web search]
__5/23/17 8:50AM
>Bruce: date on the threads
experiment with "peer reviewers"
__« May 23, 2017, 09:21:11 pm »
"sticky" function
date labeling
email string
"probable" reviews would give a theory a high place in a WIKI
summary reference to the dissents
many theories submitted
PHOTON; challenge this definition
__5/23 9 PM
>Bruce: date labeling
P.U.T structured format
invite members
Space Lattice Theory
rate P.U.T.
__Wednesday, May 24, 2017 4:38 PM
<Bruce: suggest a better title
membership fee
Lattice Theory
rating a few P.U.T. Elements
__5/24 7:33 PM
Hi Bruce: discussion thread
I started 3 threads for "theory rating"
I included the reasons for my I-ratings
__« May 26, 2017, 07:28:59 pm »
<BN: Inviting members
"discussion summary" as a "status report"
"coordination": coordination of the discussion
"external inputs": to focus or promote the discussion
Possible solution
__May 26, 2017, at 12:55 AM
>Bruce: Why wouldn't each topic in the forum have a Working Paper thread?
__Friday, May 26, 2017 10:39 AM
<Bruce: multiple purposes for the structured forum
break down disagreements among members
structure to improve all discussions
separate resolution
member recruitment, CNPS marketing, promotion of papers, and expansion of conferences
coordinating scientific research
cover the needed structure issues
__5/26 7:11 PM
Hi Bruce: your structured forum goals
A. Attempt to resolve disagreements among members:
B. Set up bibliographies to reduce newbies' questions:
C. Each section develop goals, like doing experiments, writing papers ... :
D. Improve & promote CNPS & scientific research:
CNPS forum survey eventually
1st - purpose, status report & assignments
2nd - wiki working paper
3rd - bibliography & important outside viewpoints
discussion section
__Saturday, May 27, 2017 5:33 PM
<Bruce: Important threads; using a "sticky" function
bibliographies < many forums making a few contributions each
8. Definitions
__Wednesday, May 31, 2017 7:25 AM
<Bruce: I can't do the rating without details
I don't find value in the a simple rating scale
help locate interested people
__5/31) 11AM)
>Bruce: "help locate interested people
encyclopedic list of good alternative theories
PUT rating I, which was helpful
__6/1 - 11AM
>Bruce: let members start their own threads in any of those 9 sections
let moderators request moderator-controlled threads
consulted with any forum experts?
__« June 02, 2017, 09:55:43 pm »
Hi Bruce: start one or two threads in section 1
your critique of my 8-point scientific method
repeats of the MM experiment
5-part idea
Store raw data
Self-organize teams to rectify false media claims
corporate greed
__Monday, June 5, 2017 1:45 PM
<BN: Members can post new Threads, but not "forums"
email notification
MM experiment repeats
raw data
__« June 09, 2017, 02:29:14 pm »
__Friday, June 9, 2017 10:00 AM
<Bruce:  I ratings vs P (probable) " ratings
guide a number of members to review them in depth
be published by CNPS + indexed
__Fri 6/9 2:23PM
>Bruce: look for fellow reviewers?
essential elements of P.U.T. that most interest me
« Last post by Admin on August 26, 2017, 10:05:53 am »
Below are excerpts from the book, Surge Tectonics

(Here's a Surge Channels Map:
- The Webpage is:
- I don't think that website is connected to Surge Tectonics science. It looks like they just use some of the science for their own religious ideas.
- That 1996 map, from the Surge Tectonics book, shows Earth's heat flow bands (55+ mW/m^2) which are said to be where surge channels are located. Regions of sparse data are the Antarctic, the south Pacific, the Himalayas and the eastern Arctic.)



SURGE TECTONICS: A New Hypothesis of Global Geodynamics, by Arthur Meyerhoff et al., 1996
3.1 Introduction
_Surge tectonics is based on the concept that the lithosphere contains a worldwide network of deformable magma chambers (surge channels) in which partial magma melt is in motion (active surge channels) or was in motion at some time in the past (inactive surge channels).
_The presence of surge channels means that all of the compressive stress in the lithosphere is oriented at right angles to their walls. As this compressive stress increases during a given geotectonic cycle, it eventually ruptures the channels that are deformed bilaterally into kobergens (Fig. 2.15).
_Thus, bilaterally deformed foldbelts in surge-tectonics terminology are called kobergens.
_Surge tectonics involves
_1. contraction or cooling of the Earth
_2. lateral flow of fluid, or semifluid, magma through a network of interconnected magma channels in the lithosphere
_3. Earth's rotation, which involves differential lag between the lithosphere and the strictosphere and its effects, i.e. eastward shifts (Table 2.3)
_the strictosphere is the hard mantle beneath the asthenosphere and lower crust
_lithosphere compression caused by cooling propels the lateral flow of magma through surge channels

_Contrary to general belief continental roots are fixed to the strictosphere [as shown] by large and increasing volumes of data, including neodymium and strontium studies of crustal rocks (..., 1979).
_the deep roots of continents are a major obstacle to any hypothesis requiring continental movements (..., 1985-1990).
_deep roots are seen beneath part of all of the Earth's ancient cratons.
_In places, however, lenses of 7.0-7.8-km/s material containing low-velocity zones (Fig. 3.5) are present (..., 1989).
_Such lenses containing low-velocity layers postdate the establishment of the deep cratonic roots, as we show in subsequent sections.

_3.3.2 Contraction Skepticism
_3.3.3 Evidence For a Differentiated, Cooled Earth
_1. The Earth includes several concentric shells, which are explicable only if the Earth differentiated efficiently and at a much higher temperature than today.
_2. The outermost of these shells may be the oceanic crust whose thickness ranges from about 4-7 km.
_This crust is characterized by relatively constant thickness and fairly uniform seismic properties.
_This uniformity is explained if the oceanic crust is the outermost of the Earth's concentric shells.
_5. A convincing evidence that huge segments of the lithosphere have been and are being engulfed by tangential compression is the existence of Verschluckungszonen (engulfment zones)
_In places along such zones, whole metamorphic and igneous belts that are characteristic of parts of a given foldbelt simply disappear for hundreds of kilometers along strike
_Although [some] considered these features to be former subduction zones, this interpretation is difficult to defend because all of these zones, regardless of age, are near-vertical bodies (1) reach only the top or middle of the asthenosphere (150 to 250 km deep) and (2) do not deviate more than 10° to 25° from the vertical (..., 1983-1984).
_6. The antipodal positions of the continents and ocean basins (unlikely a matter of chance) mean that Earth passed through a molten phase
_7. Theory (..., 1970) and laboratory experiment (..., 1956) showed that heated spheres cool by rupture along great circles. Remnants of two such great circles (as defined by hypocenters at the base of the asthenosphere) are active today: the Circum-Pacific and Tethys-Mediterranean fold systems. The importance of Bucher's (1956) experiment to contraction theory, in which he reproduced the great circles, is little appreciated.

3.8 Evidence for the Existence of Surge Channels
_As noted above, reflection-seismic techniques (...) have shown that the continental crust of the upper lithosphere is divisible in a very general way into an upper moderately reflective zone and a lower highly reflective zone (...). Closer scrutiny of the newly-acquired data soon revealed the presence in the lower crust of numerous cross-cutting and dipping events.
_When many of these cross-cutting events were preceived to be parts of lens-like bodies, various names sprang up: .... Strictly nongenetic names include lenses, lenticles, lozenges, and pods (...). Finlayson et al. (1989) found that the lenses have P-wave velocities of 7.0-7.8 km/s, commonly with a low-velocity zone in their middle.
_Thus we equate the lenses with the pods of "anomalous lower crust" and "anomalous upper mantle" that we discussed in a preceding section. Klemperer (1987) noted that many of the lenses are belts of high heat flow. Hyndman and Klemperer (1989) observed that the lenses generally have very high electrical conductivity.
_Meyerhoff et al. (1992b) discovered that there are two types of undeformed reflective lenses, and that many of these lenses have been severely tectonized. The first type of lens is transparent in the middle (Fig. 3.29); the second type is reflective throughout (Fig. 2.11). Tectonized lenses also may have transparent interiors, or parts of interiors; many, however, are reflective throughout (Fig. 3.21). Where transparent zones are present (Fig. 3.20), bands of high heat flow, bands of microearthquakes, belts of high conductivity, and bands of faults, fractures, and fissures are present. Where a transparent layer is not present, high heat flow and conductivity, however, are commonly still present. Meyerhoff et al. (1992b) also found that lenses with transparent interiors are younger than those without transparent interiors; moreover, there is a complete spectrum of lenses from those with wholly transparent interiors to those without.
_The best explanations of thes observations are that (1) the lenses with transparent interiors are active surge channels with a low-velocity zone sandwiched between two levels of 7.0 to 7.8 km/s material; (2) the lenses with reflective interiors are former surge channels now cooled and consisting wholly of 7.0 to 7.8 km/s material; and (3) the tectonized lenses are either active or former surge channels since converted into kobergens by tectogenesis.

_Seismotomographic data, wherever detialed studies have been made, indicate that the lenses seen in seismic-refraction and seismic-reflection studies form an interconnected, reticulate network in the lithosphere. Although only one highly detailed seismotomographic study has been made on a continental scale---this in China---it leaves no room for doubt that the 7.0-7.8-km/s lenses with transparent interiors and the seismotomographically detected low-velocity channels in the lithosphere are one and the same....
_Using seismotomographic techniques, it will be possible to map active surge channels over the world with comparative ease.

_Direct evidence for the existence of surge channels comes from tectonic belts themselves, and from one type of magma flood province. The latter include rift igneous rocks that crop out nearly continuously for their full lengths. Examples include the rhyodactic Sierra Madre Occidental-Sierra Madre del Sur extrusive and intrusive belt of Mexico and Guatemala, some 2,400 km long; the 1,600-km-long Sierra Nevada-Baja California batholith belt; the 4,000-km+ batholith and andesite belt of the Andes south of the equator; the 4,000-km-long Okhotsk-Chukotka silicic volcanic belt; the 5,800-km-long Wrangellia linear basaltic province extending from eastern Alaska to Oregon, which erupted in less than 5 Ma; and many other similar continental magma belts. The ocean basins are equally replete with them, ranging from the 60,000-km-long midocean ridge system through the 5,800-km-long Hawaiian- Emperor island and seamount chain to many similar belts of shorter lengths. Geochemical studies also show that most of these belts are interconnected. Another linear flood-basalt belt, which has been studied only relatively recently, is the subsurface Mid-Continent province that extends 2,400 km from Kansas through the Great Lakes to Ohio (Figs. 3.23, 3.24).

_Other data mentioned in the preceding sections corroborate the interconnection of active surge channels. One of these is the coincidence of the 7.0-7.8-km/s lenses of the active surge channels (Figs. 2.9, 2.31, 3.6, 3.9, 3.14, 3.20) with the belts of high heat flow (Fig. 2.26) and with belts of microseismicity. Both the presence of high heat flow and microseismicity indicate that magma is moving within active surge channels.
_However, an even more dramatic example is the June 28, 1992, Landers, California, earthquake-related activity shown on Figure 3.25. This figure shows that the 7.5- magnitude earthquake was strong enough to affect areas up to 1,250 km from the epicenter (...) and provides an exampole of Pascal's Law in action. Given the importance of Pascal's Law in surge-channel systems, the fact should be noted that the viscosity of the magma in the surge channels affected by the Landers event is sufficiently low that, when the stress was applied at a single hypocentral point (Landers), the effects could still be transmitted for 1,250 km!

_3.9 Geometry of Surge Channels
_Corry (1988) published the "Christmas Tree" model shown in Figure 2.8; Bridgwater et al. (1974) published the more complex model shown in Figure 3.26. Either of these could be cross sections of surge channels. Both are multitiered with one or more magma chambers above the main chamber.

_Study of Figures 2.8, 2.9, 2.11, 2.31, 3.6, 3.9, 3.13, 3.14, 3.20, 3.23 and 3.24 might lead one to believe that surge channels are everywhere fairly simple structures expressed at the surface by a single belt of earthquake foci, high heat flow, bands of faults-fractures-fissures (streamlines), and related phenomena which, during tectogenesis, deform into a single kobergen. Although this simple picture is true of many kobergens, it is not true of all. Study of Figures 3.26 and 3.27 suggests that, during tectogenesis of the surge-channel complexes shown on these figures, two or more parallel kobergens may exist at the surface. Such a complex surface expression is in fact quite common. Well-documented examples are found in the Western Cordillera of North America, the Mediterranean-Tethys orogenic belt (including the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau), and the Andes, inter alia. Within the Western Cordillera, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the Andes, we have found four or more parallel kobergens side by side at the surface as documented and illustrated by Meyerhoff et al. (1992b).

_The principal forces acting on the lithosphere are compression, rotation, and gravity.
_Thus, when the postulated tholeiitic picrite magma reachs the Moho- (i.e., the zone between 8.0-km/s mantle below and 6.6-km/s above), it has reached its level of neutral buoyancy and spreads laterally. Under the proper conditions---abundant magma supply and favorable crustal structure---a surge channel can form. We suggest the possibility that the entire 7.0-7.8-km/s layer may have formed in this way. In support of this suggestion, we note that the main channel of every surge channel studied, from the Archean to the Cenozoic, is located precisely at the surface of the Moho-. This indicates that the discontinuity is very ancient, perhaps as old as the Earth itself. This fact and the great difference in P-wave ==velicities above and below the Moho- surface suggest in turn that the discontinuity originated during the initial cooling of the Earth. Hence, Mooney and Meissner's (1992) "transition zone" was the level of neutral buoyancy at the time the 7.0-7.8-km/s material was emplaced.
_The formation of the Christmas-tree-like structures (Figs. 2.8, 3.26) at the Moho- is simply an extension of the larger scale process of magma transfer from the asthenosphere to the discontinuity. Once surge channels are established at the discontinuity, the same processes take over that brought the magma to the discontinuity in the first place, specifically, magma differentiation in the channels and the Peach-Kohler climb force (...). After lighter magmas have formed by differentiation and related processes, they rise to their own neutral buoyancy levels, forming channels above the main surge channel (Figs. 3.23, 3.27).



Chapter 6 Magma Floods, Flood Basalts, and Surge Tectonics
_Some 63% of the ocean basins are covered with flood basalts. At least 5% of the continents are likewise covered with flood basalts. Thus 68%---a minimum figure--- of the Earth's surface is covered with these basaltic rocks. Flood basalts, then, are not the oddities that many suppose them to be. In spite of this, they receive little attention among the scientific community.
_Engel et al. (1965) long ago demonstrated that deep ocean-floor tholeiitic basalts are the oceanic equivalent of the continental flood basalts. The Basalt Volcanism Study Project (1981) differentiated between the continental flood basalts and "ocean-floor basalts," while recognizing that the principal differences were the abundance of minor and rare-earth elements. Press and Siever (1974...) recognized the fact that the ocean-floor basalts and continental flood basalts are nearly the same, and that their differences are explained readily by contamination in the continental crustal setting.

_Continental flood-basalt provinces are geometrically of two types. The first is broadly ovate, or even round, with the maximum diameter ranging from about 500 km (Columbia River Basalt) to more than 2,500 km (Siberian Traps). The second is distinctly linear, with a width of 100 to 200 km and lengths up to and even exceeding 3,000 km.
_Tectonism and metamorphism can severely disrupt any flood-basalt province after its formation. For example, ... the Antrim Plateau Volcanics of northern Australia ... parts ... have been removed by erosion. ... Similarly, only very scattered, strongly flooded, and metamorphosed remains of the Willouran Mafic rocks are preserved in ... South Australia, but their distribution shows that [it] is a linear flood-basalt province.

_6.6 Flood-Basalt Provinces and Frequency in Geologic Time
As we observed near the beginning of this chapter, the commonly used textbooks of physical geology, structural geology, and geotectonics rarely list more than 10 to 20 flood-basalt provinces. However, the magnificent review of basalts by the participants in the Basalt Volcanism Study Project (1981) mentions or figures not less than 56 flood-basalt provinces and 45 additional provinces of dike swarms which the project participants thought might have fed flood-basalt provinces that have since been removed by erosion.
_Yoder (1988, ...) wrote that "Great basaltic 'floods' have appeared on the continents throughout geologic time (Table 1)," but showed on his Table 1 none older than 1,200+/- 50 Ma. He also ... made it clear that he regards midocean-ridge and other oceanic basalts as flood basalts, as have a number of earlier workers (..., 1974). We concur absolutely with their interpretation. We also concur with the participants of the Basalt Volcanism Study Project (1981) that evidence of the existence of flood provinces extends back in time to at least 3,760 Ma, and very likely to the Earth's earliest (but nowhere preserved) history.

_6.7 Non-Basalt Flood Volcanism in Flood-Basalt Provinces
The bimodal nature of many flood-basalt provinces has been known and stressed for many years (..., 1981). Time seems not to be a major factor (the idea being that, the longer an underlying magma chamber is present, the more the magma will interact with the continental crust above it). The most important factor may be the crustal stress state.
_We believe that the evidence from these examples demonstrates convincingly that there is a complete gradation from all-basalt and basaltic andesite flood provinces to bimodal provinces containing mainly rhyolite and ignimbrite. Hence, there are basalt floods and rhyolite floods.
_... The volumetric predominance of these ash-flow tuffs has led to recognition of the [Sierra Madre Occidental] as the world's largest rhyolite-dominated volcanic province" (Fig. 6.28).
_Thus, from 38 Ma until 17 Ma, a truly bimodal column of extrusive rocks accumulated in northern Mexico and adjoining parts of the United States, with rhyolite at one end, basaltic andesite at the other, and very little rock of intermediate compositions. ... [Skipping remainder of paragraph]
_We believe that these basalts of the "southern cordilleran basaltic andesite" suite are flood basalts. And if they are flood basalts, then we have demonstrated that the same mechanism that leads to continental and oceanic basalt outpourings also produces the "orogenic andesite suite".
_The Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt, a linear belt of Cretaceous volcanics, is similar to the Sierra Madre Occidental. It extends 3,000 km from the mouth of Uda Bay (northwestern Sea of Okhotsk) to the Bering Sea almost at St. Lawrence Island. It seems to have every type of volcanic from andesitic through rhyolite. Basalts are scarce. Soviet geologists either ignore it or say that it is the remnant of a volcanic arc.

_6.9 Surge-Tectonics Origin of Magma Floods
In the preceding pages we have referred to the presence of several flood-basalt provinces around the world, and have shown that some flood provinces include large volumes of silicic rocks, usually rhyolite and/or dacite. We have also shown by the northern Mexican example that flood basalts can interfinger with the andesite orogenic suite.
_The available evidence has led us to the conclusion that the same mechanism causes volcanism in the midocean ridges, linear island and seamount chains, oceanic plateaus, island arcs, and continental interiors. We next attempt an explanation of our conclusion.
_Many attempts have been made to explain flood volcanism in the framework of the plate-tectonics hypothesis. The two principal explanations involve (1) hot spots, or mantle plumes and (2) an extraterrestrial cause (e.g., an asteroid impact).
_Extraterrestrial causes have been proposed by Alt et al. (1988), who applied this hypothesis to the Columbia River flood-basalt province. A major problem with this concept is that it does not explain linear flood-basalt provinces such as the Keweenawan (Mid-Continent) rift and Wrangellia. Furthermore, Mitchell and Widdowson (1991) pointed out that impact and shock phenomena should be present in the area surrounding the Columbia River province if it resulted from extraterrestrial action, but they are entirley absent.
_As we noted in Chapters 3 and 4, Mooney et al. (1983) observed that all active rifts studied by them have an anomalous lower crust with P-wave velocities in the 7.0 to 7.7 km/s range (Fig. 6.36). [Others] obtained the identical result.... Fuchs (1974) believed that this pod of anomalous lower crustal material houses the mechanism that causes rifting. It is interesting to note that all midocean ridges have a pod of 7.0-7.7 km/s as well (..., 1959-1965). (Furthermore, each island arc and foldbelt also has a pod of 7.0-7.7 km/s material that pinches out from the center of the arc or foldbelt (..., 1987-1989 ... for the Japan arc ... [and] for the Appalachians.)
_Figure 3.6 is a cross section across the Baykal rift, from Krylov et al. (1979) and Sychev (1985). Years of refraction work have shown [that] Lake Baykal is underlain at about 32 km by a pod that is connected to the deeper asthenosphere. The shallow pod contains a low-velocity zone that presumably is a partial melt. The pod extends the full length of the rift. It is, in short, a channel containing partly molten magma and an excellent example of one of our surge channels. Were it to burst, we believe that it would produce another linear flood-basalt province.
_According to our surge tectonic hypothesis, magma in surge channels moves both vertically and horizontally. When two surge channels come in contact, their magmas join together. If they are oriented at an appreciable angle to one another, we believe that the result is a "collision". These5 "collisions" are responsible for the eruption of round or ovate flood-basalt provinces worldwide.



We have proposed a new hypothesis of global tectonics in this book, one that is different and will be considered unorthodox by many scientists and non-scientists alike. However, we believe that current tectonic hypotheses cannot adequately explain the increasing volume of data being collected by both old and new technologies. We believe that the hypothesis of surge tectonics does explain these data sets, in a way that is simple and more accurate.
_The major points of the surge-tectonics hypothesis can be summarized as follows:
_1. All linear to curvilinear mesoscopic and megascopic structures and landforms observed on Earth (and similar features seen on Mars, Venus, and the moons of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus), and all magmatic phenomena are generated, directly or indirectly, by surge channels. The surge channel is the common denominator of geology, geophysics, and geochemistry.
_2. Surge channels formed and continue to form an interconnected worldwide network in the lithosphere. They contain fluid to semifluid magma, or mush, differentiated from the Earth's asthenosphere by the cooling of the Earth. All newly differentiated magma in the asthenosphere must rise into the lithosphere. The newly formed magma has a lower density and therefore, is gravitationally unstable in the asthenosphere. It rises in response to the Peach-Kohler climb force to its level of neutral buoyancy (that is, to form a surge channel).
_3. Lateral movements in the Earth's upper layers are a response to the Earth's rotation. Differential lag between the more rigid lithosphere above and the (more) fluid asthenosphere below causes the fluid, or mushy, materials to move relatively eastward.
_4. Surge channels are alternately filled and emptied. A complete cycle of filling and emptying is a geotectonic cycle.
_The geotectonic cycle takes place along this sequence of events:
_a. Contraction of the strictosphere is always underway, because the Earth is cooling;
_b. The overlying lithosphere, which is already cool, does not contract, but adjusts its basal circumference to the upper surface of the shrinking strictosphere by large-scale thrusting along lithosphere Benioff zones and normal-type faulting along the strictosphere Benioff zones.
_c. Thrusting of the lithosphere is not a continuous process, but occurs when the lithosphere's underlying dynamic support fails. When the weight of the lithosphere overcomes combined resistance of the asthenosphere and Benioff zone friction, lithosphere collapse begins in a episodic fashion. Hence, tectogenesis is episodic.
_d. During anorogenic intervals between lithosphere collapses, the asthenosphere volume increases slowly as the strictosphere radius decreases and decompression of the asthenosphere begins.
_e. Decompression is accompanied by rising temperature, increased magma generation, and lowered viscosity in the asthenosphere, which gradually weakens during the time intervals between collapses.
_f. During lithosphere collapse into the asthenosphere, the continentward (hanging wall) sides of the lithosphere Benioff zones override (obduct) the ocean floor. The entire lithosphere buckles, fractures, and founders. Enormous compressive stresses are created in the lithosphere.
_g. When the lithosphere collapses into the asthenosphere, the asthenosphere- derived magma in the surge channels begins to surge intensely. Where volume of magma in the channels exceeds volumetric capacity, and when compression in the lithosphere exceeds the strength of the lithosphere that directly overlies the surge channels, the surge-channel roofs rupture along the cracks that comprise the fault-fracture-fissure system generated before the rupture. Rupture is bivergent and forms continental rifts, foldbelts, strike-slip zones, and midocean rifts. We call such bilaterally deformed belts kobergens.
_h. Once tectogenesis is completed, another geotectonic cycle or subcycle sets in, commonly within the same belt.
_5. Movement in the surge channel during the taphrogenic phase of the geotectonic cycle is parallel with the channel. It is also very slow, not exceeding a few centimeters per year. Flow at the surge-channel walls is laminar as evidenced by the channel-parallel faults, fractures, and fissures observed at the Earth's surface (Stoke's Law). Such flow also produced the more or less regular segmentation observed in tectonic belts.
_6. Tectogenesis has many styles. Each reflects the rigidity and thickness of the overlying lithosphere. In opcean basins where the lithosphere is thinnest, massive basalt flooding occurs. At ocean-continent transitions, eugeosynclines with alpinotype tectogenesis form. In continental interiors where the lithosphere is thicker, either germanotype foldbelts or continental rifts are created.
_7. During the geotectonic cycle, and within the eugeosynclinal regime, the central core (crest of the surge channel) evolves from a rift basin to a tightly compressed slpinotype foldbelt. Thus a rift basin up to several hundred kilometers wide narrows through time until it is a zone no more than a few kilometers wide that is occupied by a streamline (strike-slip) fault zone (e.g. the San Andreas fault). Then as compression takes over and dominates the full width of the surge-channel crest, the streamline fault zone is distorted, surge channel still contains any void spaces, the overlying rocks may collapse into it, and through this process of Verschluckung (engulgment) become a Verschluckungzone.
_8. The Earth above the strictosphere resembles a giant hydraulic press that behaves according to Pascal's Law. A hydraulic press consists of a containment vessel, fluid in that vessel, and a switch or trigger mechanism. In the case of the Earth, the containment vessel is the interconnected surge-channel system; the fluid is the magma in the channels; and the trigger mechanism is worldwide lithosphere collapse into the asthenosphere when that body becomes too weak to sustain the lithosphere dynamically. Thus tectogenesis may be regarded as surge-channel response to Pascal's Law.
_9. Surge channels, active or inactive, underlie nearly every major feature of the Earth's surface, including all rifts, foldbelts, metamorphic belts, and strike-slip zones. These belts are roughly bisymmetrical, have linear surface swaths of faults, fractures, and fissures, and belt-parallel stretching lineations. Aligned plutons, ophiolites, melange belts, volcanic centers, kimberlite dikes, diatremes, ring structures and mineral belts are characteristic. Zoned metamorphic belts are also characteristic. In some areas, linear river valleys, flood basalts, and/or vortex structures may be present. A lens of 7.8-7.0 km/s material always underlies the belt.
_10. Active surge channels are most easily recognized by the presence of high heat flow (Fig. 2.26), microseismicity, lines of thermal springs, small negative Bouguer gravity anomalies, and a 7.8-7.0 km/s lens of material that is transparent in the center or throughout.
_11. Inactive surge channels possess a linear positive magnetic anomaly, a linear Bouguer positive gravity anomaly, and a linear, lens-shaped pod of 7.8-7.0 km/s material that is reflective throughout.
_12. A surge-tectonics approach to geodynamics provides a new means for determining the origin of the Earth's features and their evolution through time, for analyzing regions prone to earthquakes and volcanism, and for predicting the location and formation of mineral deposits throughout the globe.
Resources / ET Sedimentation Info
« Last post by Admin on August 26, 2017, 10:05:32 am »
Pages 32-34
[b]Subduction[/b] of between 5,000 to 15,000 lineal kilometres of pre-existing East Pacific seafloor crust beneath the American continent is also not required. In Figure 6.6 the Pacific Ocean is instead shown to originate during early-Jurassic times as two separate marine sedimentary basins. A North Pacific basin was located between northwest Australia, Canada, and China, and a South Pacific basin was located between east Australia, South America, New Zealand and Antarctica.

Both of these marine basins progressively opened to the south and north, along the west coasts of North and South America respectively. These basins then merged to form a single Pacific Ocean basin during the mid- to late-Jurassic Period. Remnants of this early basin history are now preserved as continental margin and marine plateaux sediments within the South East Asian and Coral Sea regions—shown as white areas in Figures 6.6 and 6.7.

... Throughout the Mesozoic Era the North Pacific Ocean underwent a very rapid enlargement, with an asymmetric spreading axis extending southeast into the South Pacific region. This spreading and mid-oceanridge development curved along the west coasts of North and South America and ultimately extended west into the Coral Sea region during the Cretaceous.

... Development of the Pacific Ocean on an increasing radius Earth during the Cenozoic Era is characterised by the initiation and rapid development of symmetric-style seafloor spreading. This commenced within the Tasman Sea region, located southeast of Australia, during the Paleocene and it continued to extend east towards South America during the Eocene. From there, symmetric spreading continued north, forming the present East Pacific spreading ridge, and then extended along the west coast of North America to its present location adjacent to

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[b]Tethys Sea.[/b] The evolution of the Mediterranean to Middle East regions on an increasing radius Earth (Figure 6.8) represents the remnants of a more extensive continental Tethys Sea—as distinct from a conventional Tethys Ocean. The Tethys Sea will be shown later to have had an extensive crustal and sedimentary basin history, extending back to the early Precambrian times.

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[b]Fluids Origin.[/b] In addition to returning the seafloor volcanic lava and marginal sediments to their places of origin it is also conceivable to consider that the bulk of the ocean waters and much of the atmospheric gases must be returned to the mantle. Black smokers discharging hot water and gases from along the seafloor mid-ocean ridges as well as volcanic eruptions are modern-day examples of this new water and gas discharge process in action and by reversing these, and any other discharge processes, back in time the water and gases must be returned to the mantle where they came from.

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[b]Continental Composition.[/b] In contrast to the relatively simple seafloor crusts, continental crust is made up of a diverse range of present-day to ancient rocks dating back to the earliest Archaean times. These rocks include ancient granite and volcanic rocks, deformed and physically altered sediments eroded from the more ancient lands, intrusive and extrusive magmatic rocks, as well as multiple layers of overlying younger sediments deposited in past low-lying regions. These younger rocks, in particular, often cover vast areas of older rocks. Studies elsewhere also show that the average composition of the continental crust is that of granite. That is, rocks rich in silica and aluminium in the form of quartz and feldspar minerals. This contrasts with the seafloor crust which has an average composition of basalt—a lava rich in iron and magnesium.

... The continental geology shown in this figure is further complicated by subsequent deposition of many layers of young sedimentary and volcanic rocks, which generally cover and overprint the older crustal rocks lying below them. These are, in turn, complicated still further by many periods of metamorphism, folding, faulting, weathering, and erosion that may have occurred intermittently throughout Earth history.

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[b]Craton.[/b] A craton is defined as a part of the Earth’s crust that has attained relative crustal stability and the rocks have been little deformed for a prolonged period of time. By definition, cratons must have reached crustal stability by about 2,400 million years ago (the end of the Archaean Eon) and since then have undergone little deformation compared to adjacent parts of the crust.

[b]Orogen.[/b] An orogen refers to a belt of rocks characterised by regional folding, metamorphism, and intrusion of magmatic rocks. The rocks of an orogen can include deformed, eroded, and reworked parts of older, early-formed cratons, as well as volcanic and sedimentary rocks. A distinct tectonic phase of Earth movement, over a relatively short period of time, first establishes an orogen. It is also possible
for an orogen to become re-activated during subsequent tectonic events and the belt normally remains as a permanent zone of relative weakness within the Earth’s crust.

[b]Basin.[/b] A basin refers to an area that is underlain by a substantial thickness of sedimentary rocks. These rocks possess unifying characteristics of both sediment type and deformation history. Within a basin, sediments are deposited during a regionally restricted period of time, often extending for tens to hundreds of millions of years, during crustal depression or a related sequence of such events. The term basin is usually synonymous with the term sedimentary basin and it represents a regional topographical down-warp of the Earth’s surface, generally filled with water.

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8.1 [b]Assumptions[/b]
Sediments deposited in continental sedimentary basins, as well as magmatic intrusions and volcanic eruptions, represent new rocks or crusts that accumulate primarily within areas of extensional continental crust.

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[b]Flatlands.[/b] Deposition of sediments eroded from the exposed lands was confined to a global network of continental sedimentary basins which coincided with relatively shallow continental seas. Breakup and subtle jostling of each of the ancient cratons during changes in surface curvature was first initiated during this phase, in particular within the established network of sedimentary basins, giving rise to long linear zones of crustal weakness. Because of the prolonged period of time involved in this phase, the continental crust may have had a subdued featureless topography for much of the time and continental seas were relatively shallow.

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[b]Phase 2[/b]: A mid-Proterozoic to Carboniferous—from 1,600 to 360 million years ago —phase ... Crustal extension was again mainly confined within a coincident network of crustal weakness, sedimentary platform basins, and shallow seas. Over time, the network of sedimentary basins and seas continued to increase their surface areas throughout the early- to mid-Palaeozoic Era — 540 to 360 million years ago.

[b]Phase 3[/b]: A Carboniferous through to late-Permian — 360 to 250 million years ago —
transitional phase, where continental crustal extension was exceeded and extension changed to crustal rupture, rifting, and initiation of continental breakup and opening of the modern oceans. Continental seas commenced draining and deposition of sediments progressively shifted away from the established continental sedimentary basins into newly opening marine basins. Evidence for this early marine basin phase is now preserved seawards of the continental shelf margins and as remnant ocean plateaux within many of the modern oceans, such as the Lord Howe Rise in the Tasman Sea. During this phase reptiles, dinosaurs, plants and mammals evolved to eventually dominate the lands.

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[b]Spreading.[/b] During this Pangaean time, rupture and breakup of the continental crusts had initiated draining of the continental seas which was in turn accompanied by a shift in where eroded sediments were being deposited. This shift changed from sediments being deposited within an existing network of continental sedimentary basins, to being deposited within newly opening marine basins and along the continental shelf margins of the newly formed modern continents. This influx of sediment, along with intrusion of new volcanic and magmatic rocks, is now commonly preserved within submerged marine plateaux as well as continental shelf settings surrounding most of the modern continents.

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[b]Margins.[/b] Deposition of sediments within the ancient Tethys Sea region was then disrupted and deposition of eroded sediments shifted into the newly formed marine basins, now located around the margins of many of the modern continents.

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[b]Rigidity.[/b] It is now known that the Earth’s continental crust is primarily made up of stabilised ancient cratons, complexly folded and metamorphosed orogens, sedimentary basins, and volcanic seafloor crusts. The ancient cratons comprise mainly granite and volcanic rocks with lesser sediments and can, by definition, be considered as rigid crusts. The orogens comprise mainly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks—rocks that have been folded and recrystallized as a result of Earth pressures and temperatures—and when originally formed these rocks were essentially flexible crusts. These orogenic rocks may have since increased their rigidity during metamorphism. The orogenic rocks can then be considered as having an intermediary strength between the ancient cratonic rocks and the younger basin sediments. The rocks forming the sedimentary basins and seafloor crusts are, by comparison, truly flexible rocks. Over the extended period of geological time available the basin sediments in particular will readily flex, fold, fault, shear, stretch, and distort, as highlighted in many rock exposures throughout the world today.

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[b]Surface.[/b] Relief of surface curvature to the new Earth radius is then balanced by the strength of the crust and downward acting weight of the sediments deposited within the trough. During a radial increase in radius of the Earth from A to B, sediments within the geosynclinal trough are then shown to undergo compression and orogenesis during ongoing changes in surface curvature. This may have also been accompanied by intruded granite magma and volcanism.
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